The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey

S. Randich, G. Gilmore, L. Magrini, G. G. Sacco, R. J. Jackson, R. D. Jeffries, C. C. Worley, A. Hourihane, A. Gonneau, C. Viscasillas Vázquez, E. Franciosini, J. R. Lewis, E. J. Alfaro, C. Allende Prieto, T. Bensby, R. Blomme, A. Bragaglia, E. Flaccomio, P. François, M. J. Irwin, S. E. Koposov, A. J. Korn, A. C. Lanzafame, E. Pancino, A. Recio-Blanco, R. Smiljanic, S. Van Eck, T. Zwitter, M. Asplund, P. Bonifacio, S. Feltzing, J. Binney, J. Drew, A. M.N. Ferguson, G. Micela, I. Negueruela, T. Prusti, H. W. Rix, A. Vallenari, A. Bayo, M. Bergemann, K. Biazzo, G. Carraro, A. R. Casey, F. Damiani, A. Frasca, U. Heiter, V. Hill, P. Jofré, P. de Laverny, K. Lind, G. Marconi, C. Martayan, T. Masseron, L. Monaco, L. Morbidelli, L. Prisinzano, L. Sbordone, S. G. Sousa, S. Zaggia, V. Adibekyan, R. Bonito, E. Caffau, S. Daflon, D. K. Feuillet, M. Gebran, J. I.González Hernández, G. Guiglion, A. Herrero, A. Lobel, J. Maíz Apellániz, T. Merle, S. Mikolaitis, D. Montes, T. Morel, C. Soubiran, L. Spina, H. M. Tabernero, G. Tautvaišiene, G. Traven, M. Valentini, M. Van der Swaelmen, S. Villanova, N. Wright, U. Abbas, V. Aguirre Børsen-Koch, J. Alves, L. Balaguer-Núnez, P. S. Barklem, D. Barrado, S. R. Berlanas, A. S. Binks, A. Bressan, R. Capuzzo–Dolcetta, L. Casagrande, L. Casamiquela, R. S. Collins, V. D’Orazi, M. L.L. Dantas, V. P. Debattista, E. Delgado-Mena, P. Di Marcantonio, A. Drazdauskas, N. W. Evans, B. Famaey, M. Franchini, Y. Frémat, E. D. Friel, X. Fu, D. Geisler, O. Gerhard, E. A. González Solares, E. K. Grebel, M. L. Gutiérrez Albarrán, D. Hatzidimitriou, E. V. Held, F. Jiménez-Esteban, H. Jönsson, C. Jordi, T. Khachaturyants, G. Kordopatis, J. Kos, N. Lagarde, L. Mahy, M. Mapelli, E. Marfil, S. L. Martell, S. Messina, A. Miglio, I. Minchev, A. Moitinho, J. Montalban, M. J.P.F.G. Monteiro, C. Morossi, N. Mowlavi, A. Mucciarelli, D. N.A. Murphy, N. Nardetto, S. Ortolani, F. Paletou, J. Palous, E. Paunzen, J. C. Pickering, A. Quirrenbach, P. Re Fiorentin, J. I. Read, D. Romano, N. Ryde, N. Sanna, W. Santos, G. M. Seabroke, A. Spagna, M. Steinmetz, E. Stonkuté, E. Sutorius, F. Thévenin, M. Tosi, M. Tsantaki, J. S. Vink, N. Wright, R. F.G. Wyse, M. Zoccali, J. Zorec, D. B. Zucker, N. A. Walton

Context. In the last 15 years different ground-based spectroscopic surveys have been started (and completed) with the general aim of delivering stellar parameters and elemental abundances for large samples of Galactic stars, complementing Gaia astrometry. Among those surveys, the Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey, the only one performed on a 8m class telescope, was designed to target 100 000 stars using FLAMES on the ESO VLT (both Giraffe and UVES spectrographs), covering all the Milky Way populations, with a special focus on open star clusters. Aims. This article provides an overview of the survey implementation (observations, data quality, analysis and its success, data products, and releases), of the open cluster survey, of the science results and potential, and of the survey legacy. A companion article reviews the overall survey motivation, strategy, Giraffe pipeline data reduction, organisation, and workflow. Methods. We made use of the information recorded and archived in the observing blocks; during the observing runs; in a number of relevant documents; in the spectra and master catalogue of spectra; in the parameters delivered by the analysis nodes and the working groups; in the final catalogue; and in the science papers. Based on these sources, we critically analyse and discuss the output and products of the Survey, including science highlights. We also determined the average metallicities of the open clusters observed as science targets and of a sample of clusters whose spectra were retrieved from the ESO archive. Results. The Gaia-ESO Survey has determined homogeneous good-quality radial velocities and stellar parameters for a large fraction of its more than 110 000 unique target stars. Elemental abundances were derived for up to 31 elements for targets observed with UVES. Lithium abundances are delivered for about 1/3 of the sample. The analysis and homogenisation strategies have proven to be successful; several science topics have been addressed by the Gaia-ESO consortium and the community, with many highlight results achieved. Conclusions. The final catalogue will be released through the ESO archive in the first half of 2022, including the complete set of advanced data products. In addition to these results, the Gaia-ESO Survey will leave a very important legacy, for several aspects and for many years to come.

Department of Astrophysics
External organisation(s)
INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, University of Cambridge, Keele University, Vilnius University (VU), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Universidad de La Laguna, Lund Observatory, Royal Observatory of Belgium, INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Université de recherche Paris Sciences et Lettres, University of Edinburgh, Uppsala University, Università degli Studi di Catania, Space Science Data Center (SSDC) - Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), Université Côte d'Azur, Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS), Université Libre de Bruxelles, University of Ljubljana, Australian Academy of Science, University of Oxford, University College London, Universidad de Alicante, Science and Operations Department - Science Division (SCI-SC), Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Osservatorio Astronomico, Universidad de Valparaíso, Núcleo Milenio Formación Planetaria – NPF, University of Copenhagen, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, University of Padova, Monash University, INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Universidad Diego Portales, Stockholm University, European Southern Observatory (Germany), Andrés Bello National University , Universidade do Porto, Observatório Nacional/MCT, Saint Mary's College, Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, European Space Astronomy Centre (ESA), Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Université de Liège, Universidad de Concepción, Aarhus University, Universitat de Barcelona, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Sapienza University of Rome, Australian National University, University of Central Lancashire, INAF Astronomical Observatory of Triest, Université de Strasbourg, Indiana University Bloomington, Peking University, Universidad de La Serena, Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Scientific Software Center, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, National Observatory of Athens, Malmö University, Institut UTINAM, University of New South Wales, University of Bologna, Universidade de Lisboa, Université de Genève, University of Toulouse, Czech Academy of Sciences, Masaryk University, Imperial College London, Landessternwarte Königstuhl (LSW), University of Surrey, Armagh Observatory, Johns Hopkins University, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Université Paris VI - Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, Macquarie University, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Instituto Nazionale die Astrofisica (INAF), Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux
Astronomy & Astrophysics
Publication date
Peer reviewed
Austrian Fields of Science 2012
103004 Astrophysics
ASJC Scopus subject areas
Astronomy and Astrophysics, Space and Planetary Science
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